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October 19, 2016   saa  07:55:50

Nelson mandela ,intwari isi yose itazibagirwa

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Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela yari umunyapolitiki n’impirimbanyi ku burenganzira bwa muntu, akaba yaramenyekanye nk’umuntu wabashije kurwanya ivanguraruhu rya Apartheid ryakorerwaga abirabura bo muri Afurika y’epfo bikaba aribyo byamugize intwari ku isi yose ndetse akaba yarabaye perezida wa mbere w’umwirabura w’iki gihugu.

Yavutse tariki 18 Nyakanya 1918, avukira mu cyaro cya Mvezo ho muri Umtata, akaba yarahawe izina rya Rolihlahla rikaba ari ijambo ryo mu kirimi cya Xhosa rivuga “gatezabibazo”, ariko nyuma aza no kongeraho izina rya Madiba, arikomora mu bwoko bwe.

Izina Mandela akaba yararikuye kuri sekuru wari umuhungu w’umwami Ngubengcuka wayoboraga mu duce twa Transkei.

Mandela yakuranye na bashiki be 2, mu cyaro cya Qunu aho mama we yakomokaga, akaba yarakundaga gukorakoranya abantu b’abasore b’urungano. Ababyeyi be bose ntibari bazi gusoma no kwandika, ariko nk’abakirisitu b’abametodisiti (Methodiste) nyina yamujyanye mu ishuri afite imyaka 7 y’amavuko. Nyuma yo kubatizwa muri iri dini, umwarimu wamwigishaga yamuhaye izina rya “Nelson” nk’izina rya gikirisitu, niko kwitwa Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela ndetse wongereyeho Madiba

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Arangije amashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye, Mandela yize Kaminuza muri University College of Fort Hare, aza kuhirukanwa maze akomereza muri University of South Africa. Akirangiza yatangiye gukora nk’ushinzwe umutekano mu birombe by’amabuye y’agaciro.

Aha yahakoraga aniga amategeko muri University of the Witwatersrand, aho yaje gukura impamyabushobozi mu mategeko nyuma y’imyaka irenga mirongo ine ahiyandikishije kuko yabonye iyi mpamyabushobozi ari muri gereza mu w’i 1989.

Nelson Mandela yinjiye mu ishyaka ryaharaniraga uburenganzira bw’abirabura ANC (African National Congress) mu w’ 1944 aho yahise ashinga umutwe w’urubyiruko w’iryo shyaka.

Muri uwo mwaka kandi, yashatse umugore we wa mbere Evelyn Mase banabyaranye abana bane. Uwo mugore we baje gutandukana mu w’i 1958. Yari umusore w’intarumikwa, dore ko yanakinaga umukino njyarugamba w’ibikonjo (BOX).

Mandela yaje gukorana na Oliver Tambo, undi mwirabura waharaniraga uburenganzira bw’abirabura muri Afurika y’epfo, bashinga ikigo cy’ubwunganizi mu mategeko mu w’i 1952

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Muri uwo mwaka kandi, yaje gufungwa hamwe n’abandi 19 nyuma yo kwigaragambya bamagana amategeko yari abangamiye uburenganzira bwabo. Ibi byarakomeje, Mandela akomeza gukurikiranwa nk’umwe mu bayobora imyivumbagatanyo y’abirabura basaba uburenganzira.

Urubanza rwabo rwamaze igihe kirekire ari nako abandi benshi bagenda bigarabambya. Muri icyo gihe, Mandela yaje gushakana n’uwitwa Winnie Madikizela maze babyarana abana babiri.

Nyuma yo kubona ko imyigaragambyo, kwandikira abayobozi ndetse n’ubundi buryo bwose bwananiranye, Mandela yatowe na bagenzi be kugirango azayobore urugamba rwo kwibohora.

Uru rugamba nirwo bise: “Umkhonto wesizwe” bisobanura ngo “Icumu ry’Igihugu.” Mandela yaje guhindura amazina ye yiyita David Motsamayi maze azenguruka ibihugu bya Afurika ndetse n’Ubwongereza aho yakusanyaga inkunga yo gutegura iyo ntambara. Yanakoze imyitozo ya gisirikare muri Maroc ndetse na Etiyopiya.

Nyuma y’ukwezi agarutse muri Afurika y’epfo yahise afungwa ku itariki ya 5 Kanama 1962 azira kuba yarasohotse igihugu nta ruhushya afite no gushishikariza abakozi kwigaragambya, icyo gihe akatiwe imyaka itanu.

Mu rubanza yararimo n’abandi icyenda, yahavugiye ijambo ritazibagirana ati: “Narwanyije ukwishyira hejuru kw’abazungu, narwanyije ukwishyira hejuru kw’abirabura.

Mfite icyizere ko dushobora kubana mu mudendezo, ubwumvikane na demokarasi aho buri wese yaba afite amahirwe angana n’ay’undi. Iki cyizere mfite nzakomeza kugiharanira kandi ndizera kuzakigeraho. Ni biba ngombwa kandi niteguye kuzagipfira.”

Ku itariki ya 11 Kamena 1964, Nelson Mandela ari kumwe na bagenzi be barindwi bakatiwe gufungwa burundu. Abo bandi ni: Walter Sisulu, Ahmed Kathrada, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Denis Goldberg, Elias Motsoaledi na Andrew Mlangeni. Batandatu muri bo bahise bajyanywa muri gereza ya Robben Island. Mandela yabaye muri iyo gereza kugeza mu w’i 1988 aho yimuriwe mu yindi yitwa Victor Verster Prison aho yari agiye kwivuriza indwara y’igituntu.

Yaje kurekurwa ku itariki ya 11 Gashyantare 1990, igihe kitazibagirana mu mateka ya Afurika ubwo ukwishyira no kwizana n’uburenganzira bw’umwirabura byari bigezweho.

Umwaka ukurikiyeho yaje kuyobora ishyaka rya ANC maze aza guhabwa igehembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel hamwe n’uwari Perezida wa Afurika y’Epfo icyo gihe, Frederik W. de Klerk.

Mandela yatoye kuba perezida wa Afurika y’epfo ndetse no kuba perezida wa mbere w’umwirabura mu mateka y’iki gihugu ku itariki ya 27 Mata 1994, anatsinda amatora maze ukwezi gukurikiyeho aba Perezida wa mbere w’umwirabura wa Afurika y’Epfo.

Mandela yayoboye manda imwe maze mu w’i 1999 ntiyongera kwiyamamaza. Kuva icyo gihe yagiye agaragara mu buzima butandukanye bw’igihugu cye akomeza guharanira demokarasi no kurwanya akarengane aho kava kakagera.

Ubuzima bw’izabukuru bw’uyu mukambwe ntibwigeze bumworohera, dore ko igihe kinini yabaga ari mu maboko y’abaganga, arwaye kubera indwara zo mu buhumekero zatewe n’ingaruka zo gufungwa bigatera benshi ku isi ubwoba ko yaba agiye kwitaba Imana ariko akenshi Imana igakomeza kumurinda.

Tariki 5 Ukuboza 2013, nibwo urugendo Mandela yari amaze kugenda ku isi rwarangiye, akaba yaritabye Imana aguye I Johannesburg, azize indwara zo mu myanya y’ubuhumekero.

Hari hashize iminsi 2 umukobwa we, Makaziwe Mandela, avuze ko Mandela agifite agatege. Nyamara mu masaha y’ijoro y’itariki ya 5 Ukuboza nibwo byamenyekanye ko Umukambwe Mandela yamaze kuva ku isi, ibi bikaba byarahise byemezwa na Perezida wa Afurika y’epfo Jacob Zuma kuri tereviziyo y’igihugu, aho yasabye abanyafurika y’epfo ndetse n’abatuye isi muri rusange, kwibuka ibikorwa bitandukanye by’ubutwari uyu mukambwe yagaragaje mu kugeza Afurika y’epfo ku bwigenge.

Nelson Mandela yitabye Imana afite imyaka 95 y’amavuko, akaba yaragiye agaragaza ibikorwa by’ubutwari byo kwamagana akarengane kakorerwaga abirabura, cyane cyane ivangura rishingiye ku ruhu (Apartheid) ryakorwaga n’Abongereza bakoronizaga igihugu cy’Africa y’epfo. Urupfu rwa Nelson Mandela rwanyeganyeje isi yose.

Nyuma y’urupfu rwe bamwe mu bategetsi ndetse n’ibyamamare bakomeye hirya no hino ku isi bahise bohereza ubutumwa bw’akababaro bwo gufata mu mugongo abanyafurika y’epfo.

Perezida wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika Barack obama yavuze ko ntawakwirengagiza ibikorwa by’indashyikirwa bya Mandela kuko ngo atari buri wese wakora nk’ibyo Mandela yakoze, naho Ban Ki Moon umunyamabanga mukuru wa ONU yavuze ko isi ibuze umuntu w’ingenzi kandi uzahora wibukwa ngo kuko abona ntawe wamugereranya nawe mu bantu bagaragaje ubutabera atitaye ku cyubahiro yari afite aho yemeye no kubifungirwa.

Ubuzima ndetse n’ibikorwa by’umwihariko bya Mandela byagiye bikoreshwa hirya no hino mu kwigisha abatuye isi.

Ubuzima bwe bwararirimbwe n’abaririmbyi banyuranye ndetse bukinwaho filime nyinshi, iya nyuma iherutse gukorwa ikaba ari Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom yakozwe ishingiye ku gitabo yanditse igihe yari avuye muri gereza (Long Walk to Freedom) yagiye hanze mu 2013, ikaba ikinwa n’umukinnyi wa filime w’umwongereza Idris Elba.

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Mandela yashatse abagore benshi ariko abazwi ni 3, Graça Machel, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela na Evelyn Mase, akaba yarasize abana 6 aribo Makaziwe Mandela-Amuah, Zenani Mandela, Makgatho Mandela, Madiba Thembekile Mandela, Zindziswa Mandela na Makaziwe Mandela. 


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